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1916-2016

Improvement of the chemical durability of sodaâlimeâsilica glass bottles by.... GT_V3_1_017-035

Improvement of the chemical durability of sodaâlimeâsilica glass bottles by.... GT_V3_1_017-035

The chemical durability of untreated and treated soda-lime-silica glass bottles has been investigated. All bottles were taken from an ordinary continuous production of 100 millimetre bottles. The bottles were treated in the annealing lehr with sulphur, ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride, and aluminium chloride, pills of different weights of these substances being put into the bottles. The bottles were attacked by water at 121·5°C for several hours and the amounts of sodium oxide and silica leached out into the water were measured. The influence of the degree of attack by the water when adding salts to it was studied. The variations in chemical composition between different thin layers of the glass wall was studied by means of an etching technique, hydrofluoric acid being used to etch the glass. The amounts of sodium oxide and alumina were determined in the hydrofluoric acid after etching for some minutes; in this way it was possible to compare the degree of dealkalization obtained in the different treatments. It was also possible to study to what extent alkali is removed from the surface of a glass wall in a durability test. The different surfaces, before and after attack, were studied in an electron microscope. The mechanism of corrosion and flake formation could be followed. Good correlation was found between the results obtained in the durability tests, the etching analyses and the appearance on the micrographs.

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