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1916-2016

Pt. 2-Gold and copper glasses Ruby and related glasses: From the standpoint of the... V3 GT_1962_095

Pt. 2-Gold and copper glasses Ruby and related glasses: From the standpoint of the... V3 GT_1962_095

Theoretical studies in Part indicate that copper, silver, and gold, when incorporated into glass take up a definite ratio RI/RO, of onevalent to nilvalent metal, depending on the chemical potential of oxygen in the glass. The presence of oxidized metal R1 in glasses which 'strike' to a colloidal metal colour was confirmed by the following experiments. Bulk copper, silver, and gold needed oxidizing conditions to be incorporated appreciably into base glasses: the oxidizer ceria in glass retarded the striking of the gold and silver colours: while an atmosphere of hydrogen encouraged the striking of copper ruby and to a slight extent ceria gold colours. Striking of a gold colour in a cerium-free glass was not noticeably affected by an atmosphere of hydrogen, indicating that AuO was present and that easily reducible Au3 was absent, thereby rebutting the view that striking is due to the 'disproportioning' of Au1. In agreement with the prediction in Part that lead glass helps to stabilize Cu1, cuprous oxide crystallized from simple alkali lead silica glasses. The mode of chemical combination of copper, silver, and gold in glass, and the chemical reaction mechanisms, are also discussed

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