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1916-2016

Glass Furnaces Contents Page

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1

Introduction

3

2

Technical criteria, descriptions and designs

5

2.1

Technical criteria

5

2.2

Other criteria

7

2.3

Nomenclature

7

2.4

Types of Furnace

7

3

Construction elements and dimensions

12

3.1

The tank

14

3.2

Superstructure

22

3.3

Regenerators

34

3.4

Recuperators

45

3.5

Flue

48

3.6

The reversal mechanism

50

3.7

Chimneys

52

3.8

The supporting steelwork

53

4

Selection and use of refractories in glass tank furnaces

60

4.1

Selection criteria

60

4.2

Compositions and properties of the more important refractories

60

4.3

Refractories, their selection and use in particular cases

66

5

Operation of glass tank furnaces

76

5.1

The heating process

76

5.2

Measurement and control

93

5.3

Reversal

102

5.4

The heating and cooling of glass furnaces

105

5.5

Hot repairs

113

6

Tank furnaces ‑ their behaviour in operation

119

6.1
6.2

Flow of combustion gases in the combustion space
Flame formation in the combustion space

119
122

6.3

Heat emission in the combustion chamber

127

6.4

The charging and melting of batch

134

6.5

Glass currents

144

6.6

The homogenisation and refining of molten glass

158

6.7

Mixing processes in glass tank furnaces

161

6.8

Changing glass colour in tank furnaces

164

6.9

The behaviour of refractories in contact with molten glass

169

6.10

The performance of refractories in the superstructure and waste gas regions of a furnace

174

6.11

The stirring of glass

175

7

Mathematical models of glass tank furnaces

178

7.1

Models of the firing system

178

7.2

Models of glass currents

179

7.3

Models of glass tanks

179

8

Electric tank furnaces

195

8.1

Electrical properties of molten glass

195

8.2

Transfer of energy from electrodes to molten glass

199

8.3

Electrode circuits

201

8.4

The electrical resistance of different arrangements of electrodes

203

8.5

Electrode materials

207

8.6

Electrode positioning

210

8.7

Electrode holders

211

8.8

Design and operation of electric tank furnaces

214

8.9

Glass tank furnaces with electric boosting

222

8.10

Safety features

224

9

Day tanks

226

9.1

Temperature schedule and melting process

226

9.2

Firing system

227

9.3

Fuel consumption

227

9.4

Melting rate

 

9.5

Glass quality

228

9.6

Refractories

228

10

Pot furnaces

229

10.1

Design

229

10.2

Furnace operation

231

10.3

The heating process

234

10.4

Electrically heated pot furnaces

235

10.5

Refractories

236

 

 

 

11

Fuels and combustion

239

11.1

Fundamentals

239

12

Waste heat recovery

249

12.1

Recuperators and regenerators: design calculations

249

12.2

Waste heat boilers

256

13

Emissions from glass furnaces

265

13.1

Breakdown of materials emitted

265

13.2

Volatilisation from molten glass

266

13.3

Evaporation from melting batch

267

13.4

Dust evolved from melting batch

268

13.5

Deposits and reactions taking place in regenerator chambers

268

13.6

Chimney emissions

269

13.7

Visibility of waste gas plumes

272

13.8

Equipment for the reduction of emissions

273

 

 

 

 

References

277

 

Index

281

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