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1916-2016

Coloured Glasses Contents Pages

The constitution of coloured glasses, the colours of glasses produced by various colouring ions and other additions are explained in this classic work. In addition, fluorescence, thermoluminescence and solarisation are also described.

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Chapter page
FOREWORD BY PROFESSOR W. E. S. TURNER v
AUTHOR'S PREFACE vii
PART I THE CONSTITUTION OF COLOURED GLASSES
I. THE ORIGIN OF COLOUR IN INORGANIC SUBSTANCES 3
Inorganic Chromophores 3
The Influence of Solvation on Colour 9
The Influence of Adsorption 12
The Influence of Temperature on Colour 15
II THE CONSTITUTION OF GLASS 17
General Review of the Problem 17
Ions as the Building Units of Glasses 22
The Principles Governing the Ionic Structure of Crystals and Glasses 26
The Atomic Structure of Silica Glass 28
The Atomic Structure of Binary and Ternary Silicate Glasses 30
The Atomic Structure of Boric. Oxide-Containing Glasses 33
The Atomic Structure of Phosphate Glasses 35
The Role of Al2O3, BeO, ZnO, PbO and TiO2 in Glasses 36
III THE CONSTITUTION OF GLASS 44
The Replacement of Oxygen by other Elements 44
Sulphur and Selenium as Substitutes for Oxygen 44
Halogen Ions as Substitutes for Oxygen 46
IV THE TERMS ACIDITY AND BASICITY IN RELATION TO MODERN THEORY OF STRUCTURE 52
V THE CLASSIFICATION OF GLASSES ACCORDING TO THEIR CHROMOPHORES 57
Coloured Glasses with One Colouring Ion 59
Coloured Glasses with Chromophore Groups Consisting of Two Ions 60
Coloured Glasses with Chromophore GroupsConsisting of Three Ions 62
VI THE CONSTITUTION OF GLASS AS REVEALED BY COLOUR AND FLUORESCENCE INDICATORS 64
The Determination of the State of Oxidation of a Glass by the Indicator Method 65
The Determination of the Acidity and Basicity of a Glass by the Indicator Method 66
The Determination of the Co-ordination Number of an Ion 70
Indicators for the General Electric Perturbation of an Ion 74
Fluorescence Indicators 80
PART II THE COLOURS OF GLASSES PRODUCED BY VARIOUS COLOURING IONS
VII THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY IRON 89
The Influence of the Iron Content on the Technology of a Glass 89
General Discussion on Absorption, Transmission and Colour 91
A. The Spectral Absorption of Iron Compounds in Aqueous Solutions and Glasses 91
B. The Blue Colour in Iron-containing Glasses 95
C. Colorless Iron Complexes in Glasses 97
The Equilibrium between Di- and Tri-valent Iron in Glasses 101
A. The Influence of Temperature and Time 102
B. The Influence of the Iron Concentration 103
C. The Influence of the Composition of the Glass 108
D. The Influence of Oxidising and Reducing 113
VIII THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY MANGANESE 121
Introduction 121
The Nature of the Manganese Colour 121
Reactions During the Melting of Manganese Glasses 127
The Melting of Manganese Glasses 129
IX THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY CHROMIUM 132
Introduction 132
The Colour of Chromium Compounds 132
The Nature of the Chromium Colour in Glasses 138
The Melting of Chromium Glasses 142
Chromium Pink 144
X THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY VANADIUM 149
Introduction 149
The Chemistry of Vanadium Compounds 149
Vanadium in Glass 151
XI THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY COPPER 154
Introduction 154
The Chemistry of Copper 155
The Colour of Cupric Ions in Solutions and Glasses 156
The Reduction of Cupric to Cuprous Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Glasses 161
The Properties of Copper Glasses 163
XII THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY COBALT 168
Introduction 168
The Colour of Cobalt in Crystals and Solutions 170
Cobalt Pigments 176
Cobalt Glasses 179
Influence of Temperature on the Colour of Cobalt Glasses 187
Cobalt Glasses as Pyrosols 188
The Melting of Cobalt Glasses 190
Influence of Infra-Red Absorption on the Melting and Working
Properties of Glasses 191
XIII THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY NICKEL 197
Introduction 197
The Colour of Nickel in Glasses, Crystals and Solution 197
XIV THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY URANIUM 205
Introduction 205
The Chemistry of Uranium Compounds 205
Uranium in Glass 206
XV THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY TITANIUM, TUNGSTEN AND MOLYBDENUM 212
I. Titanium 212
II. Tungsten and Molybdenum 216
XV I THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY THE OXIDES OF THE RARE-EARTHS ELEMENTS 218
Introduction 218
The Absorption Spectra of Neodymium and Praseodymium 220
Glasses Containing Neodymium and Praseodymium 221
Some Applications of Neodymium Glasses 226
Cerium-Containing Glasses 229
PART III THE COLOURS OF GLASSES PRODUCED BY THE NON-METALLIC ELEMENTS: SULPHUR, SELENIUM, TELLURIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND CERTAIN OF THEIR COMPOUNDS
XVII THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY SULPHUR AND ITS COMPOUNDS 237
Historical Review of the So-called Carbon-Amber Glasses 237
The Constitution and Colour of Polysulphide Glasses 242
The Melting of Carbon-Amber (Sulphur) Glasses 252
The Blue Sulphur Glasses 257
Glasses Containing the Sulphides of Heavy Metals 260
Equilibria between Sulphides and Silicates 261
The Striking of Colour in Sulphide Glasses 265
The Melting of Sulphide Glasses 268
Special Sulphide Colours in Glasses 270
The Melting of Cadmium Sulphide Glasses 274
Antimony Ruby Glasses 275
Miscellaneous other Sulphides in Glasses 279
XVIII GLASSES COLOURED BY SELENIUM AND SELENIDES 282
Elementary Selenium 282
The Nature of Selenium. Pink 282
Reactions during the Melting of Selenium Glasses 287
The Melting of Selenium Pink Glasses 295
Conclusions on the Use of Selenium in Glassmaking 301
Glasses Coloured by Polyselenides 303
Iron Selenide Glasses 304
Selenium Ruby Glasses and the Nature of the Colour 308
The Melting of Selenium Ruby Glasses 313
Selenium Black Glasses 323
XIX GLASSES COLOURED BY TELLURIUM AND BY PHOSPHORUS 324
I. Tellurium 324
II. Phosphorus 325
PART IV THE COLOURS PRODUCED BY METAL ATOMS.
XX FUNDAMENTALS CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METALS AND GLASSES 331
The Formation of Metal Atoms in Glasses 331
The Solubility of Metals and the Formation of Pyrosols 333
The Influence of Some Constituents on the Solubility of Metals in Fused Salts and Glasses 339
The Role of Tin Oxide in the Formation of Ruby Glasses 343
The Role of Stannous Chloride in the Formation of Silver Mirrors 348
XXI THE CRYSTALLISATION OF METALS FROM THE GLASS MELT 352
The Mobility and Diffusion Speed of Metal Atoms in Glasses. 352
Nucleus Formation and Crystal Growth 355
The Theory of Coagulation. von Smoluchowski's Equation 360
XXII THE ABSORPTION of LIGHT BY METALS 366
Fundamentals Concerning the Absorption of Light by Metals 366
The Scattering of Light 369
The Effect of the Nature of the Dispersed Phase on the Absorption of Light by Colloidal Metals 371
The Effect of Shape and Internal Structure 375
XXIII GOLD IN GOLD-RUBY GLASSES. 380
Historical Introduction 380
The Nature of the Ruby Colour 381
The Melting of Gold-Ruby Glasses 384
The Striking of Gold-Ruby Glasses 388
The Basic Types of Gold Dispersion in Glasses 391
XXIV SILVER IN GLASSES. 401
Introduction 401
The Chemistry of Silver .Glasses 401
The Melting of Silver Glasses 406
The Colour of Silver Glasses 406
XXV THE SILVER-STAINING OF GLASSES 409
Introduction 409
The Fundamentals of the Staining of Glasses by Cementation 410
The Effect of the Glass Composition on the Silver Stain 418
XXVI COPPER IN COPPER-RUBY GLXSSES (HEMATINONE AND COPPER AVENTURINE) 420
Introduction 420
The Nature of the Red Colour Produced by Copper 421
The Work of P. Ebell 423
The Melting of Copper-Ruby Glasses 425
The Role of the Tin in Copper-Ruby Glasses 427
The Role of the Copper in Copper-Ruby Glasses 428
The Striking of Copper-Ruby Glasses 430
XXVII THE COPPER STAINING OF GLASSES 433
PART V THE FLUORESCENCE, THERMOLUMINESCENCE AND THE SOLARISATION OF GLASS
XXVIII THE GENERAL THEORY OF FLUORESCENCE IN GLASSES 439
Introduction 439
Pseudo-Fluorescence 440
The Fundamentals of Fluorescence 441
The Excitation Process 444
The Lifetime of the Excited State 445
Influence of the Type of Binding of the Atoms 447
The Quenching of Fluorescence 449
The Classification of Fluorescent Glasses 452
XXIX FLUORESCENT GLASSES 453
Glasses Containing Crystalline Fluorescence Centres 453
Glasses Containing Energy-Isolated Atoms or Molecules 458
Glasses Containing Fluorescent Ions. 465
The Uses of Fluorescent Glasses 491
XXX THERMOLUMINESCENCE 495
XXXI THE SOLARISATION OF GLASSES 497
Fluorescence and Photosensitivity 497
The History of Studies on Solarisation 498
The Explanation of Solarisation 500
The Control of Solarisation 507
The Regeneration of Solarised Glasses 508
The Solarisation Equilibrium 511
Helpful Models for the Study of Solarisation in Glasses 513
XXXII PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOSENSITIVE GLASSES 515
AUTHOR INDEX 522
SUBJECT INDEX 529

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