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1916-2016

Basic Optical Stress Measurement in Glass Contents Pages

Contents
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Page
Introduction 1
2. Background theory 3
2.1 Light and the visible spectrum 3
2.2 Polarised light 5
2.2.1 Plane polarisation 5
2.2.2 Determination of the polarising axis of a polariser 7
2.2.3 Circular polarisation 8
2.3 Birefringence or double refraction 9
2.4 Stress birefringence 12
2.4.1 Isoclinics 14
2.4.2 Isochromatics 17
2.4.3 Evaluation of stress optical coefficients 22
3. Basic techniques 25
3.1 Polariscopes 25
3.2 Compensators 26
3.2.1 Wedge 26
3.2.2 Polyurethane square 30
3.2.3 Babinet compensator 30
3.2.4 Babinet-Soleil compensator 33
3.2.5 Tint plate 34
3.2.6 Standard strain discs 36
3.2.7 Berek compensator 39
3.3 Goniometric compensation 40
3.3.1 SÚnarmont compensation 40
3.3.2 Tardy compensation 43
3.3.3 Friedel compensator 43
3.4 Immersion fluids 43
4. Flat glass 46
4.1 Float glass: on-line measurement 46
4.1.1 Manual measurements 46
4.1.2 Automatic strain viewers 47
4.2 Annealed glass-area stress measurement 51
4.2.1 Reflection photoelasticity 51
4.2.2 Pockels cell 53
4.3 Annealed glass-thickness stress measurement 54
4.4 Toughened glass-area stress measurement 56
4.5 Toughened glass-thickness stress measurement 56
4.5.1 Scattered light method 57
4.6 Surface stress measurement 62
4.6.1 Surface refractometry 62
4.6.2 Surface polarimetry 66
4.7 Laminated glass 68
5. Container glass 69
5.1 Glass containers-ring sections 69
5.2 Glass rods and tubes 71
5.2.1 Rods 72
5.2.2 Tubes 73
6. Glass seals 77
7. Special techniques 79
7.1 Magnetophotoelasticity 79
7.2 Spectral contents analysis 84
Acknowledgements 87
References 88
Index 90
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